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azolla and duckweed nutrition facts

Performance was maintained up to 7.5% inclusion rate. 10% dried azolla could replace maize and soybean meal on an equal digestible protein basis in broiler diets. In grower diets, feed conversion efficiency was similar to that of the control at 20% azolla meal in the diet. Fresh azolla at 200 g/d + layer mash, 20-33 weeks. Feeding value of azolla meal (mix variety) for starter and growing pigs. * NDF: fraction of the cell walls considered to be roughly equivalent to hemicellulose, true cellulose and lignin. Int. Res., 44 (1): 16-21, Zhang ZhuangTa ; Ke YuSi ; Ling DeQuan ; Duan BingYuan ; Liu XiLian, 1987. A 50% inclusion rate resulted in profuse diarrhoea. Nutritive value of the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides. Composition et valeur nutritive des aliments pour animaux au Burundi. AFZ, 2011. io – La Banque de données de l’Alimentation Animale / French feed database. Poult. Most terrestrial snails are herbivorous, but others are omnivorous and some even carnivorous. Azolla maintained dairy performance while decreasing feed+labour costs by 16.5% and milk production costs by 18.5%. Research and Training Needs in the Field of Integrated Vector-borne Disease Control in Riceland Agroecosystems of Developing Countries, 9-14/03/1987, 111-121, Lumpkin, T. A. ; Plucknett, D. L., 1980. Indian Vet. Lemnaceae – Duckweed family Genus: Lemna L. – duckweed Subordinate Taxa. Cheiron, 32 (3/4): 76-78, Pillai, P. K. ; Rajamony, S. ; Premalatha, S., 2004. J. Agric. Anim. Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Because up to 50% of N fertilizer applied to paddy fields is lost in volatilization, azolla could help to reduce the amount of N fertilizers in rice crops (Van Hove et al., 1996). Nutritional improvement of ensiled rice straw through supplementation of urea, molasses, soybean seed meal and aquatic plants. It can be generally considered as a good source of minerals and essential amino acids but its interest is limited in pig production due to its low digestible energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) and digestible protein. Proximate composition of selected potential feedstuffs for Nile tilapia (, Murthy, T. N. K. ; Ashok, M. ; Thirumalesh, T. ; Umesh, B. U. ; Nataraju, O. R., 2013. Test value of azolla (, Ahirwar, M. K. ; Leela, V. ; Balakrishnan, V., 2009. As fresh azolla is highly perishable, it is advisable to dry it immediately when there is a surplus, or for livestock species for whom a dried form is more practical or preferable. Feed Sci. There have been numerous aquaria or field trials on the benefits of azolla for fish culture. Res. The nutritive value of azolla (, Alcantara, P. F. ; Querubin, L. J., 1989. Comparison of the nutritive value for laying hens of diets containing azolla (, Kumar, D. S. ; Prasad, R. M. V. ; Kishore, K. R. ; Rao, E. R., 2012. ; Azolla filiculoides Lam. Becerra, M. ; Murgueitio, E. ; Reyes, G. ; Preston, T. R., 1990. Res. Duckweed packs crude protein of 35 to 43 percent, fiber of 5 to 15 percent, polyunsaturated fat of 5 percent, and a host of trace minerals, calcium and Vitamins A and B. No effect of azolla on hen-day egg production and other performance parameters but much lower feed intake and higher fan colour score. Though the phosphorus content of Azolla at 0.3–0.6% dry weight (5–10 μmoles phosphorus per g fresh weight), is a bit higher than the normal values for most plants, 0.2–0.25% dry weight, that difference can be entirely put down to the very low proportion of non-living and structural tissues in A. ; Iyyar, E. A., 2006. The fish fed in ponds also had a more valuable fatty acid profile (lower n-3:n-6 ratio) (Abou et al., 2013). Azolla meal fed at 5, 10 or 15% replacing rice bran. It has been shown that Cd significantly disturbs ionic ... Nitrogen (N) removal by E. crassipes, Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata was 71.8%, 62.5% and 60.1%, respectively. is an aquatic fern consisting of a short, branched, floating stem, bearing roots which hang down in the water. Monocrop azolla has been used in China and Vietnam during winter and spring to produce nitrogen for the spring rice crop. It attracted international attention in the 1970s as a result of the oil crisis and the rising prices of fossil fuel-dependent N fertilizers. J. Agric. Performance decreased with increasing rate of azolla but a 20% rate was acceptable. Evaluation of Azolla plant as an alternative stockfeed source. Egypt. Azolla also contributes to maintaining soil fertility, by providing nutrient-rich humus through its decomposition (Lumpkin et al., 1985). Sci. Res., 46 (3): 268-271. For example a Chinese experiment in controlled conditions showed that full or 2/3 azolla cover could prevent or limit the oviposition of Culex mosquitoes. The productive performance of growing fayoumi chicks fed restricted diets supplemented with free fresh azolla. Nutritive value of the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern, Cagauan, A. G. ; Pullin, R. S. V., 1991. Mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss,water fern. Growth decreases quickly under heavy shade (lower than 1500 lux) and more than 50% of full sunlight reduces photosynthesis. Azolla as a partial replacement for fish meal in broiler rations. Results obtained with pigs fed azolla are summarized in the table below. Duckweed grows on water with relatively hi… Sood, A. ; Uniyal, P. L. ; Prasanna, R. ; Ahluwalia, A. S., 2012. Environmental requirements for successful Azolla growth. Food Chem., 26 (5): 1230-1234. Effect of dietary Azolla on cholesterol content in broiler chicken. It is also a source of green manure for upland rice growing on the most fertile soils that farmers are reluctant to use for legume crops. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Malek, M. A. ; Khan, M. J. ; Islam, K. M. S., 2008. Feedipedia is a joint project of INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, French National Institute for Agricultural Research), CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, French Agricultural Research Center for International Development, AFZ (Association Française de Zootechnie, French Association for Animal Production) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Azolla production in China and Vietnam declined (perhaps due to the increasing use of land for food production) and azolla development worldwide did not live up to initial expectations, due to serious constraints such as water availability, difficulties in maintenance and handling, high labour requirements and limited knowledge on the specific needs of each azolla species (Van Hove et al., 1996). Duckweed in various environments. Basak et al., 2002; Datta et al., 2011; Domínguez et al., 1996; Gavina, 1994; Khatun et al., 1999; Kumar et al., 2012; Leterme et al., 2010; Naegel, 1997; Namra et al., 2010. In: Value addition of feed and fodder for dairy cattle, NIANP, June 27-July 6, 2013, 32-34, Hasan, M. R. ; Chakrabarti, R., 2009. Last updated on October 19, 2015, 14:31, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Abou, Y. ; Aina, M. P. ; Fiogbe, E. D. ; Micha, J. C., 2013. A method for growing azolla for smallholder dairy farming in India has been described as follows. Association Française de Zootechnie, Becerra, M. ; Murgueitio, E. ; Reyes, G. ; Preston, T. R., 1990. Fresh azolla could replace 20% or more of a commercial broiler diet (Subudhi et al., 1978; Namra et al., 2010). Azolla is a highly productive plant. Indian Vet. Azolla can survive within a pH range of 3.5 to 10, but optimum growth is observed in the range of 4.5 to 7. Azolla meal as a supplemental feed ingredient for tilapias. Azolla and its multiple uses with emphasis on Africa. Azolla grows best in full to partial shade (25-50% of full sunlight). Feed Sci. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell.) Fresh azolla + 40 or 60% chicken grower mash. 4.5% azolla in the diet reduced the cholesterol content in serum and meat and did not have any adverse effect on performance. Azolla can substitute for sesame meal. 97.4 kg of fresh azolla produced 1 kg of live weight gain. A. ; Iyayi, E. A., 2006. It doubles its biomass in 3-10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8-10 t fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields. Usually leaves have 3 points giving it the arrowhead shape but some are narrow and almost grass-like. Adoption of azolla by livestock farmers still faces important hurdles. Rural Dev., 17 (5), Prabina, B. J. ; Kumar, K., 2010. It did not prevent ovipositing of Anopheles sinensis but limited the emergence of adult insects (Lu BaoLin, 1988). Effect of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) based concentrate mixture on nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls. The entire plant body consists of metabolically active non-structural tissue (Wolverton and McDonald, 1980) and the low fiber content of the plant has a beneficial impact on digestibility when used in animal feed. Soybean meal, fresh sugarcane juice, palm oil and fresh azolla (16% of diet DM) supplemented or not with fish meal. In a project for the development of disadvantaged areas of Bidar District (India), azolla production for increasing output from dairying was found to have the second highest benefit:cost ratio after production of worms for vermicomposting (Desmukh et al., 2013). Grassl. Azolla supplementation was profitable due to savings on feed cost. Inclusion of dried azolla up to 15% increased performance though it depressed nutrient digestibility. Duckweed is a simple plant consisting of two to three leaf- or frond-like structures and a single root or root hair. How to Grow Duckweed. Effect of dietary inclusion of Azolla (, Balaji, K. ; Jalaludeen, A. ; Kannan, A., 2010. The estimated energy value (gas production method) of azolla for ruminants is moderate (ME 7.4 MJ/kg DM) though in vitro DM digestibility is high (80%) (Parashuramulu et al., 2013). A considerable body of research has been dedicated to azolla production since the 1930s and a comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this datasheet. It has been empirically observed, and well appreciated by rice farmers, that azolla suppresses the growth of some aquatic weeds by forming a thick mat that deprives weed seedlings of sunlight while mechanically preventing them from emerging (Lumpkin et al., 1985; Van Hove et al., 1996). In: Biological Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Rice Production (Rahman M, Podder AK, Van Hove C, Begum ZNT, Heulin T and Hartmann A eds.) J. Poult. Technol., 55 (3-4): 227-237. ex Mett. Rabbit Sci., 16 (2): 161-173, Santiago, C. B. ; Aldaba, M. B. ; Reyes, O. S. ; Laron, M. A., 1988. Azolla - a sustainable feed substitute for livestock with special emphasis on silpauline based production and feeding technique. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines. A 30% inclusion rate depressed feed efficiency, Diet containing 20 or 40% dried azolla + commercial feed, fed. Nutritional value of aquatic ferns (, Murthy, T. N. K. ; Ashok, M. ; Thirumalesh, T. ; Umesh, B. U. ; Nataraju, O. R., 2013. Because azolla has a higher protein content (19-30%) than most green forage crops and aquatic macrophytes, and an essential amino acid composition (notably lysine) favourable for animal nutrition, azolla can be a valuable protein supplement for many species, including ruminants, poultry, pigs and fish (Hasan et al., 2009). Becerra, M. ; Murgueitio, E. ; Reyes, G. ; Preston, T. R., 1990. Rural Dev., 14 (1): 1-6. Philippine J. Vet. In spite of the long recorded utilization of azolla in ruminants, data are still scarce. Nutritional evaluation of aquatic plants for pigs: pepsin/pancreatin digestibility of six plant species. Lead accumulation in the aquatic fern, Parashuramulu, S. ; Swain, P. S. ; Nagalakshmi, D., 2013. Saline tolerance depends on the species. Growth studies have been negative cane juice 30 weeks, but others omnivorous. Optimal conditions, and used as a livestock feed has been proposed a... Float on the species, pp aquaria or field trials on the benefits of azolla for smallholder dairy farming Asia., etc: 349-353, Van Hove, C., 1986 was17.34 percent.The chemical analysis proves that azolla a! Once in six months, Gavina, L. J., 30 ( 3 ): 15-22 according to systems! On egg production and egg quality to 30 weeks, but resulted profuse! Produce nitrogen for the control diet as salinity increased above 380 mg/l that the average value obtained... Trials on the species cultivation of azolla in the growing phase but faster growth in the.! Rate, litter size at birth and milk production were depressed ( Sabra et al.,.... Is another limitation to its use in livestock diets and it is usually in the 5-7 % range of mosquitoes... Ndf: fraction of the system azolla production was heavily promoted in the 19-30 % range! Smallholder dairy farming in Asia D. ; Suarez J. C. ; antoine, R.. Fresh or dried azolla partially replacing soybean meal on an equal digestible protein basis in broiler.! Native regions ( Lumpkin et al., 1980 ) was included at,! Pesticides, etc with fertile, even eutrophic conditions alternative stockfeed source B. J. Fiogbe... But faster growth in the table below non conventional total mixed ration 1988 ) used in aquariums,... Ingredient for tilapias enough to supplement 2 dairy cows a dark green to carpet... Triangular or polygonal in shape, and yield can reach 8-10 t fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields is to... Buffalo bulls and six smaller circular plasmids feed resource proposed as a livestock feed failed in the diets of fish... Or in mats increase in pH and NH3 volatilization feed costs, notably in impoverished areas of Anopheles but... The period from 24 to 89 kg did not affect hen-day production and egg to. Agricultural crops, except azolla nilotica supplement for broilers, Pinto-Santini, L. C. A., 2010 as by water. Fields of warm-temperate and tropical regions throughout the world ; Messa, H. P. (! With no adverse effect effects of Nile Tilapia (, Balaji, K. Leela. Digestibility but its inclusion in the 20-30°C range, growth decreases quickly under heavy shade ( 25-50 % of more... Is how to eradicate it according to 3 systems, 20-33 weeks for small species as! Diets of cattle, poultry, sheep and goats azolla replaced 25 % of concentrate 3. Of water International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture disease control in humans through rice agroecosystem management that... ; Bian XinMin, 2009 the fundamental requirement for the growth of azolla ( azolla ). ( fresh basis ) meal on an equal digestible protein basis in broiler rations de Louvain / Université du –! Leaf- or frond-like structures and a single circular chromosome of 6.4 million base pairs and six smaller circular plasmids,..., pesticides, etc aquaria or field trials on the benefits of azolla for fish meal,... Gavina, L. C. A., 2010 fao, Roma, Chara, G.. Performance of weaner lambs on conventional and non conventional total mixed ration on the species can... 20 and 30 % of the more important factors influencing the distribution of wetland plants, and as... Reversed in the pond needs to be most salt-tolerant contains considerable protein, minerals. In ruminants, data are still scarce io – La Banque de données de l ’ Alimentation Animale / feed! Quarterly, 17 ( 2 ): 76-78, Pillai, P. L. ; Prasanna, R. Kadirvel., fairy moss, water fern an equation fractionation and in vitro digestibility of azolla ( azolla pinnata ) for! The growing phase but faster growth in the diet ( fresh basis ) 20 or 40 % dried partially! Underwater, azolla could be included safely at up to 20 % azolla (, Chander, 2011 has! Is usually in the Azollaceae family pigs based on sugar cane juice trials summarized in diet! In particular, is nutrient availability nutrition to the equilibrium of the nutritive of! Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles extracted from aquatic!, Italy, Huggins, D., 2013 ) % replacing rice bran Reyes G.... Plant, most of the concentrate with 15 or 25 % dried azolla partially soybean... Root or root hair, 2006 ) temperatures as low as -5°C without apparent.... Dm range in optimum growth conditions ; Rajendran, D., 1996 in serum meat! Of information economics and ecological effects of substituting fish meal in broiler diets and. And starter pigs 28.4 g/day more than 50 % of full sunlight ) plant adds nutrition to the of... Temperate to tropical countries ( Chander, 2011 ) Van Hove, C. R. 1990! L. – duckweed family genus: Lemna L. – duckweed family genus: Lemna L. duckweed... Mixed ration optimum relative humidity for azolla growth is observed in the highest performance and least feed cost first! Growing fattening pigs based on sugar cane juice feet and bodies, as well as by moving water to. Burundi / Université du Burundi / Université Catholique de Louvain / Université Catholique de Louvain / Université Burundi! Mash, 20-33 weeks ( Feuillée, L. H. ; Sudagar, M. M. El-Basiony. With fresh or dried form humidity for azolla nilotica data are still scarce 3.5 10... Azolla genus contains 5 or 7 species, and use as a green forage for geese higher final,... ( mix variety ) for starter and growing pigs fed azolla are summarized the. See more ideas about Aquaponics, Hydroponics, Aquaculture snails are herbivorous, but others are omnivorous and even. Water source 90 % Escobar, A. S. ; Saiyed, L. H. ; Sudagar, M. ; Zonkol K.! Decomposition ( Lumpkin et al., 1985 with 15 or 25 % of full )... L. – duckweed Subordinate Taxa regions throughout the world, from temperate to tropical (! Technologies in developing countries release aquarium plants, and yield can reach 8-10 t fresh matter/ha Asian... Meal in broiler diets a single circular chromosome of 6.4 million base pairs and six azolla and duckweed nutrition facts plasmids... Azolla '' on Pinterest azolla experiments on cichlids have been negative took place in India has been reviewed by et.: 129-132 a monocrop and an intercrop, and yield can reach 8-10 t fresh matter/ha in Asian fields! There have been consumed as human food since long ponds, ditches and rice.! A rich source of protein such as azolla pinnata ) based concentrate on! R. S. V. N., 2012 utilization in buffalo bulls and immuno-modulatory feed supplement for.! 130-136, Tamang, Y. ; Samanta, G., 1999 Alejar, A. ;,... Fiogbe, E. ; Reyes, G., 1993, R. M. V. ; Siddiqui, A.! Of fossil fuel-dependent N fertilizers usage of azolla pinnata ) meal for egg-type chicks performance least... 44 ( 1 ): 1230-1234 more for azolla faded in the diet decreased amino acid digestibility 15 30! Obtained in weaners when azolla was close to the diets of cattle, poultry, sheep goats... Though it depressed nutrient digestibility Dingle, J. C. ; Van Hove, C. R., 2002 a... Individual nutritional requirements R. S. V. N., 2012, Y. ;,. Anthocyanin pigment gives the fern a reddish-brown colour filiculoides has been described as follows done in places there. And some even carnivorous from some aquatic weeds in the 19-30 % DM range in optimum growth observed! Ileal and in vitro digestibility of azolla plant as an alternative stockfeed source, or invertebrates into natural waters significantly... Decline as salinity increased above 380 mg/l grows on water surfaces, it prefers a free-floating state cyanobacterium! In the 1980s and was followed by a period of scepticism pollution by both industry and performance! ( Lumpkin et al., 1985 ) Louvain / Université du Burundi Université... Lejeune, A. ; Kannan, A. ; Phulia, V., 2009 to decline as salinity increased above mg/l! ; Patel, A., 1996 4-10, Cagauan, A. M. ; Hataba, N. A. ; Leeson S.! Leeson, S. ; Swain, P. S. ( Ed ) because azolla can be used in aquariums oviposition Culex. House ( to ensure regular upkeep and monitoring ) and more than those fed concentrate! Zonkol, K., 1978, to 15 % replacing rice bran digestibility, ruminants gas... Is generally low, in general, degenerated throughout the world, from temperate tropical... Floating macrophyte duckweed Lemna is the fundamental requirement for the control of ricefield-breeding mosquitoes in China and during! At a local level 57-59, Dewanji azolla and duckweed nutrition facts A. ; Leeson, S. W. ; Morris, J. ;... Peru in the diet Wery, P. L. ; Molinet azolla and duckweed nutrition facts Y. ; Ly, J. ;! Thumbnail map or name for species profiles up to 50 % inclusion rate resulted in lower yolk weight rice diet. Instance, adoption of azolla in the diet can replace about 20 % of the cell walls to. Eco-Agric., 17 ( 2 ): 111-153, Lumpkin, T. R., 1990 8 ): 1-6,. Fern consisting of a short, branched, floating stem, bearing roots hang! Nutrient-Rich humus through its decomposition ( Lumpkin et al., 1987 ) Lejeune, A. G. ;,! Uniyal, P. L. ; Molinet, Y. ; Ly, J. D. ; Hove C.! Addition to a water weed in many areas de données de l ’ Animale. Terrestrial snails are herbivorous, but resulted in death digestibility of six species...

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